M mode echocardiography

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Contents

Historical Perspectives

  • One of the first modes available
  • Excellent resolution

Keys to interpretation

  • What structure is being imaged?
  • Where is the cursor?
  • Size
  • Septum in HOCM
  • Timing
  • Tamponade - diastolic collapse
  • Density
  • Myxomatous leaflets, masses


Technology

A single crystal rapidly alternates between transmission and receiver modes with rapid updating result, rapidly moving structures (eg, valve leaflets) can be monitored for their characteristic motion very high temporal resolution

Specific Structures

Aortic Valve M-mode Analysis

  • During systole do the aortic valve leaflets oppose the aorta?
  • Are the leaflets thick and calcified (bright)?
  • Possible to have normal appearance on m-mode if non-calcific
  • Are leaflets open throughout systole - HOCM, low-output state


Aortic M-Mode
Aortic M-Mode

Mitral Valve M-mode Analysis

  • Anterior leaflet with E/A appearance of diastology
  • Decreased EF slope in MS
  • Scalloping of leaflet tip in end systole in prolapse


Mitral M-Mode
Mitral M-Mode

Ventricular M-mode

  • Ventricular Wall Thickness
  • Ventricular Chamber Size
  • Intraventricular Masses


Ventricular M-Mode
Ventricular M-Mode

M Mode Pathologic States

M Mode in Aortic Stenosis

  • Thickened, calcified leaflets
  • Dense, persistent echoes replacing the normal motion patterns
  • Post-stenotic aortic root dilation (> 35mm)
  • LVH
  • Eccentrically placed diastolic closure line (BAV)
Aortic Stenosis M Mode
Aortic Stenosis M Mode

M Mode in Mitral Valve Prolapse

  • Systolic bowing of the posterior mitral valve leaflet
MVP M Mode
MVP M Mode


M Mode in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

  • Septal hypertrophy
  • Systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the anterior mitral valve leaflet
  • Mid-systolic (premature) closure of the aortic valve due to outflow track obstruction


HOCM M Mode
HOCM M Mode
HOCM Mid Systolic AV Closure
HOCM Mid Systolic AV Closure


HOCM M Mode
HOCM M Mode

M Mode in Mitral Stenosis

  • Leaflet tips bright (calcified) and thickened
  • E/F slope decreased
Mitral Stenosis M Mode
Mitral Stenosis M Mode

M Mode in Tamponade

  • Diastolic collapse of the right ventricle
Tamponade M Mode
Tamponade M Mode


Tamponade M Mode
Tamponade M Mode

M Mode Aortic Regurgitation

  • Increased duration between E and A peaks
  • Fluttering of the anterior mitral valve leaflet due to AI jet turbulence
  • Clinical setting to decide mechanism
Aortic Regurgitation M Mode
Aortic Regurgitation M Mode

Other M Mode Findings

B Bump

  • Elevated left ventricular end diastolic pressure
B Bump
B Bump


M Mode in Endocarditis

  • Thickened leaflets
  • Good motion
  • Mass
  • Clinical scenario likely to give clue - dialysis patient, etc.
Aortic Valve Endocarditis M Mode
Aortic Valve Endocarditis M Mode


Left Atrial Myxoma

  • Bright hyperdensity in mitral orifice throughout cardiac cycle
  • Functional MS
Left Atrial Myxoma M Mode
Left Atrial Myxoma M Mode

Pulmonary Hypertension

  • M-mode of pulmonary valve - W appearance indicates elevated pulmonary pressures


Hypertensive Heart Disease

Hypertensive Heart Disease M Mode
Hypertensive Heart Disease M Mode
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Mitral Stenosis

Mitral Stenosis M Mode
Mitral Stenosis M Mode

Mitral Valve Prolapse

MItral Valve Prolapse.jpg M Mode
MItral Valve Prolapse.jpg M Mode

Mitral Regurgitation

Flail Posterior Mitral Leaflet  M Mode
Flail Posterior Mitral Leaflet M Mode
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