From Ask Dr Wiki
It is used in chemoembolization applications as a contrast agent in follow-up imaging. It has an additional use in gastric variceal obliteration as a dilutant that does not affect polymerization of cyanoacrylate.
Historically it was often used as a contrast media at hysterosalpingography(HSG). This is an investigation to determine tubal patency as part of the investigation of subfertility. It became less commonly utilised in the 1960s to 1980s because the more modern water soluble media give images that are easier to interpret. There is also an important safety issue with lipiodol in that intravasation (leakage) of the fluid into the venous system has caused patients to be uwell in the past.
Recently there has been an increasing interest in the use of lipiodol as a therapeutic agent in the management of unexplained infertility called lipiodol flushing. There have been a small number of studies that suggest that flushing the media through the tubes gives a short term rise in fecundity in patients with unexplained infertility. A recent systematic review has suggested a significant increase in fertility, especially in those women who have endometriosis when using lipiodol flushing (Johnson N.P et al).